A Song of Ice and Fire

This is the fictional social network of the series of fantasy novels "A Song of Ice and Fire" by George R. R. Martin (1996–present). An edge denotes that two characters are mentioned within fifteen words of each other; edge multiplicities denote the number of such appearances. This version of the dataset covers books one to five.


Internal nameasoiaf
NameA Song of Ice and Fire
Data sourcehttps://github.com/mathbeveridge/asoiaf
AvailabilityDataset is available for download
Consistency checkDataset passed all tests
Miscellaneous network
Dataset timestamp 1996 ⋯ 2011
Node meaningCharacter
Edge meaningCo-appearance
Network formatUnipartite, undirected
Edge typeUnweighted, multiple edges
LoopsDoes not contain loops


Size n =796
Volume m =32,629
Unique edge count m̿ =2,823
Loop count l =0
Wedge count s =81,158
Claw count z =1,766,472
Cross count x =37,318,726
Triangle count t =5,655
Square count q =78,782
4-Tour count T4 =960,534
Maximum degree dmax =122
Average degree d =81.982 4
Fill p =0.008 921 97
Average edge multiplicity m̃ =11.558 3
Size of LCC N =796
Diameter δ =9
50-Percentile effective diameter δ0.5 =2.848 72
90-Percentile effective diameter δ0.9 =4.143 66
Median distance δM =3
Mean distance δm =3.410 82
Gini coefficient G =0.788 981
Balanced inequality ratio P =0.176 331
Relative edge distribution entropy Her =0.886 437
Power law exponent γ =1.779 17
Tail power law exponent γt =2.321 00
Tail power law exponent with p γ3 =2.321 00
p-value p =0.051 000 0
Degree assortativity ρ =−0.115 391
Degree assortativity p-value pρ =3.389 13 × 10−18
Clustering coefficient c =0.209 037
Spectral norm α =953.787
Algebraic connectivity a =0.752 030
Spectral separation 1[A] / λ2[A]| =1.717 35
Non-bipartivity bA =0.578 642
Normalized non-bipartivity bN =0.123 682
Algebraic non-bipartivity χ =0.203 828
Spectral bipartite frustration bK =0.007 184 18
Controllability C =168
Relative controllability Cr =0.211 055


Fruchterman–Reingold graph drawing

Degree distribution

Cumulative degree distribution

Lorenz curve

Spectral distribution of the adjacency matrix

Spectral distribution of the normalized adjacency matrix

Spectral distribution of the Laplacian

Spectral graph drawing based on the adjacency matrix

Spectral graph drawing based on the Laplacian

Spectral graph drawing based on the normalized adjacency matrix

Degree assortativity

Zipf plot

Hop distribution

Double Laplacian graph drawing

Delaunay graph drawing

Edge weight/multiplicity distribution

Clustering coefficient distribution

Average neighbor degree distribution


Matrix decompositions plots



[1] Jérôme Kunegis. KONECT – The Koblenz Network Collection. In Proc. Int. Conf. on World Wide Web Companion, pages 1343–1350, 2013. [ http ]