Highland tribes

This is the signed social network of tribes of the Gahuku–Gama alliance structure of the Eastern Central Highlands of New Guinea, from Kenneth Read (1954). The network contains sixteen tribes connected by friendship ("rova") and enmity ("hina").


Internal nameucidata-gama
NameHighland tribes
Data sourcehttp://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/data/ucinet/ucidata.htm#gama
AvailabilityDataset is available for download
Consistency checkDataset passed all tests
Human social network
Node meaningTribe
Edge meaningFriendship
Network formatUnipartite, undirected
Edge typeSigned, possibly weighted, no multiple edges
LoopsDoes not contain loops


Size n =16
Volume m =58
Loop count l =0
Wedge count s =387
Claw count z =777
Cross count x =1,033
Triangle count t =68
Square count q =283
4-Tour count T4 =3,928
Maximum degree dmax =10
Average degree d =7.250 00
Fill p =0.483 333
Size of LCC N =16
Diameter δ =3
50-Percentile effective diameter δ0.5 =0.979 675
90-Percentile effective diameter δ0.9 =1.833 59
Median distance δM =1
Mean distance δm =1.454 21
Gini coefficient G =0.131 466
Balanced inequality ratio P =0.405 172
Relative edge distribution entropy Her =0.988 424
Power law exponent γ =2.182 81
Tail power law exponent γt =8.991 00
Degree assortativity ρ =+0.049 904 8
Degree assortativity p-value pρ =0.594 725
Clustering coefficient c =0.527 132
Spectral norm α =6.483 38
Algebraic connectivity a =2.102 54
Spectral separation 1[A] / λ2[A]| =1.332 48
Non-bipartivity bA =0.561 989
Normalized non-bipartivity bN =0.517 455
Algebraic non-bipartivity χ =2.375 14
Spectral bipartite frustration bK =0.081 901 4
Negativity ζ =0.500 000
Algebraic conflict ξ =1.040 29
Triadic conflict τ =0.132 353
Spectral signed frustration φ =0.035 872 0
Controllability C =1
Relative controllability Cr =0.062 500 0


Fruchterman–Reingold graph drawing

Degree distribution

Cumulative degree distribution

Lorenz curve

Spectral distribution of the adjacency matrix

Spectral distribution of the normalized adjacency matrix

Spectral distribution of the Laplacian

Spectral graph drawing based on the adjacency matrix

Spectral graph drawing based on the Laplacian

Spectral graph drawing based on the normalized adjacency matrix

Degree assortativity

Zipf plot

Hop distribution

Double Laplacian graph drawing

Delaunay graph drawing

Item rating evolution

Edge weight/multiplicity distribution

Clustering coefficient distribution

Average neighbor degree distribution


Matrix decompositions plots



[1] Jérôme Kunegis. KONECT – The Koblenz Network Collection. In Proc. Int. Conf. on World Wide Web Companion, pages 1343–1350, 2013. [ http ]
[2] Kenneth E. Read. Cultures of the Central Highlands, New Guinea. Southwestern J. of Anthropol., 10(1):1–43, 1954.